Promote gender equality and empower women

Where we are?

Goal and Likelihood of achievement

  • Gender equality and empowerment of women - Unikely


TARGET 3. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education by no later than 2015.


2015 target
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education 0.56 a
0.79 a
0.90 b
1.0 c
1.02 c
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education 0.43 a
0.70 a
0.84 b
0.93 c
0.99 c
Ratio of women to men in tertiary education 0.32 d
0.28 d1
0.50 e
0.63 f
0.71 m
Ratio of litrate women aged 15-45 years to literate men aged 15-24 years 0.48 g n/a 0.73 h 0.83 i 0.85 j 1.0
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (%) 18.9 g 17.7 g2 n/a 19.9 i 44.8 j -
Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament 3.4 a 5.8 a n/a 32.8 n/a -
a-  NPC & UNCT (2005).
b-  DoE (2005).
c-  DoE (2009);
c1- DOE 2013 Flash Report (2013).
d-  UNSD (2005) (based on UNESCO global database);
d1- UNSD (2001).
e-  UGC (2005)
f-  UGC (2007).
g-  CBS (2003);
g1- CBS (1991);
g2- CBS (2001).
h-  CBS (2004).
i-   CBS (2009).
j-   CBS (2011).
m-  MoE (2012).


Priorities until 2015

Nepal's progress in meeting MDG 3, the promotion of gender equality and women empowerment, is fair: it has already met its targets for the ratio of girls to boys in both primary and secondary education, but it is unlikely to meet its targets for either the ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education or the ratio of literate women aged 15-24 to literate men of the same age.

To maintain gender parity at the primary and secondary levels and achieve it at the tertiary level, the government must allo-cate more financial and human resources toward continuing to implement its effec-tive programmes and introduce focused policies that address both the financial and security issues of older girl students. It  should  provide  the  ultrapoor  with scholarships and living subsidies and the poor with soft loans.  To increase the ratio of literate women to men, it needs to introduce an incentive component to its literacy programme.  

The following initiatives are needed.

  • Continue providing incentives (scholarships, cash allowances, packets of vegetable oil, midday meals) to girls who attend school in order to sustain gender parity.
  • Launch programmes with incentives (quotas for admission, scholarships, living subsidies, soft loans) in order to enhance girls' participation in tertiary education.
  • Launch  mass  literacy  programmes with incentives in order to achieve parity in literacy rates.
  • Continue to provide incentives and reserve places for women in education, training, and employment opportuni -ties and increase resource allocation to that end.
  • Establish an advocacy programme to persuade political parties to ensure that one-third of their members are women and to see that the same pro-portion of seats is reserved in the national legislative body.
  • Ensure that women's economic contributions through domestic work and agriculture are reflected in the national GDP.
  • Enhance men's engagement in activities designed to eliminate socio-cultural discrimination against women and  promote gender quality and women's empowerment.
  • Improve institutional capacities to address gender-based violence and adopt a policy of zero tolerance.
  • Adopt the goal of reducing gender-based violence by half with in a fixed timeframe.  
  • Train youths to foster social harmony among children, youths, adults and the elderly.