Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2006, Nepal has undergone a complex transition that entailed rehabilitating former combatants, supporting a participatory constitution drafting process, holding credible elections and mitigating potential conflicts. UNDP has worked closely with national institutions and other development partners to support Nepal and the Nepalese people through this transitional phase in order to overcome the challenges.

Nepal’s primary challenge over the last several years has been formulating a democratic and inclusive constitution that is acceptable to all sections of society. With the drafting of constitution in September 2015, Nepal has completed a majority of the milestones enshrined in the Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) signed in November 2006 that ended decade-long civil war. The Government of Nepal has taken important steps towards forging consensus on key contentious issues, mitigating conflict in the country and successfully completing its democratic transition. There are, however, several challenges that need to be addressed: giving ownership of the new constitution to disgruntled parties and groups and effectively implementing new constitution by transitioning into a federal structure.

UNDP launched the Conflict Prevention Programme (CPP) in 2010 to support the prevention, mitigation and management of conflicts at the central and local levels that it aims to achieve through collaborative leadership and dialogue and ‘Do No Harm’ approach. The programme is working to ensure that development initiatives are designed, implemented and monitored in a conflict sensitive way that maximizes peace building impacts. CPP is designed to assist the government and key stakeholders in engaging in meaningful and constructive dialogue on contentious issues of transition, address tensions in districts/regions that are sensitive through its Collaborative Leadership and Dialogue approach, to identify sources of conflict through an early warning system and develop a mechanism for an early response, and to train organizations to mainstream Conflict Sensitivity (CS) into their approaches. The programme is also supporting the Government to develop a conflict Early Warning/Early Response (EWER) system to address the emergence of localized tensions in timely and constructive manner.

With CPP’s support, national and local leaders have used CLD as tools to address divisive issues that could escalate into more serious tensions. Seven multi stakeholders dialogue fora were established in 2014 to provide space for government officials, political party leaders and civil society actors to identify and discuss issues of concerns in their respective regions. For instance, religious leaders, who have skills in CLD approach continue to address possible religious tension between Muslim and other communities in Banke district.

Since 2008 UNDP had been supporting the Constituent Aseembly/Legislature Parliament (CA/LP) in its task of participatory constitution building, through the Support to Participatory Constitution-Building in Nepal (SPCBN) project. After promulgation of the new Constitution in September 2015, the SPCBN project has been transformed into a more comprehensive Parliament Support Project. The new project provides general support to LP in order to strengthen its role as a law making, oversight body and representative of the people.